Friday, May 22, 2020

Dispute Settlement Clauses in Investment Treaties - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1331 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Investment Essay Did you like this example? A vital element of investment treaty arbitration is the dispute settlement clause found in investment treaties. It grants investors the right to institute arbitration proceeding directly against a state. This type of clause represent a change from traditional international law practice where by an investor was generally dependent on its home sate to pursue a diplomatic protection claim on behalf of the investor.[1] 3.8.1. International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes The ICSID is an autonomous international institution formulated under the auspices of the World Bank to facilitate as a specialized method of international dispute settlement. The claimant in this form of arbitration is a private party and the respondent is a foreign state. The convention also known as the Washington convention entered into force in October 14, 1996. The ICSID is based in Washington; the center offers special autonomous procedures for administering investment arbitration between a state, or state entity and a foreign private investor. ICSID was created as n independent international organization (article 18 of ICSID), but ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s structurally linked to the World Bank. The banks governor sits on the administrative council of ICSID, the chairman of the administrative council is the World Bank president and the ICSID secretariat is funded through the World Bank. The ICSID has a comprehensive o structure consisting of a council and a secretariat. The a dministrative council is composed of all contracting states, the secretariat on the other hand provides the day to day administrative and support function for arbitration. Initially numbers of cases registered with the ICSID was low. After the conventions entry to force in 1966 no case was registered with ICSID,[2] between 1966 to 1996 only 35 cases were registered, an average of one case per year approximately.[3] Today though the picture is totally different, the number of cases registered at the ICSID has increased significantly. The ICSID has also brought some revolutionary change in private vs. state arbitrations. Traditionally investors depended on their home state to pursue claims on their behalf against a host state before an international court or tribunal. The ICSID conventions grants investorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ direct arbitration rights against states. In contrast with other arbitral institutions, ICSID procedure is self contained and insulated from domestic cour t involvement during arbitral procedure.[4] The insulation of ICSID arbitral proceedings from the influence of domestic court is achieved through a number of provisions in the ICSID convention. Under the ICSID convention domestic courts have no power to set aside ICSID awards. Under international law submission of a private party claim against states before an international tribunal requires that the party first needs to exhaust the local domestic legal remedies available in the respondents states domestic courts. The ICSID reverse these notion and it presumes that parties to the convention have waived there requirement of exhaustion of domestic remedies. Due to its advantages, ICSID is a major actor in the field of international investment and economic development, the ICSID stands as a leading international arbitration institution devoted to investor vs. state dispute. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dispute Settlement Clauses in Investment Treaties" essay for you Create order 3.8.2. Permanent Court of Arbitration The PCA was established in 1899 at the first Hague peace conference. The PCA provides arbitration for cases involving states, intergovernmental organizations against private parties.At the conference à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  was adopted which established which set the foundation for an institution resolving international commercial dispute. The Permanent Court of Arbitration was founded. It was the first in its character to have a political character because it was created bu states pooling their resources. The PCA was founded in 1899; the PCA holds the pride for being the oldest institution that deals with international dispute resolution. At the time it was established referring disputes or international disputes to international tribunals for resolutions was rare. In the same way, international law the basis for dispute resolution wasnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t quite relatively undeveloped. Hamilton elaborates th at à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"while a rudimentary set of principles had emerged from a combination of state practice and the theoretical wok of writers such as Grotius, Vattel and Pufendor, neither the substantive rules needed to regulate the complex relation of states nor, naturally, the adjectival law indispensable to third party processes of dispute resolution, had been properly developed[5] The PCA back then is todays forms of international dispute solving mechanism, including the International Court of Justice (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ICJà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ).[6] The PCA headquarters is located in Hague, and it house in the peace place, the Peace Palace now also houses the ICJ, the Carnegie Library and The Hague Academy of International Law. When it was first founded, the PCA establishment purpose was to settle dispute between states. During it first existence yearà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s significant number of interstate disputes were submitted to tribunal under PCA auspices. The PCA has to solve issues relating to territorial disputes, state responsibilities, treaty interpretation more generally issues related to international public law. Many of the principles laid down in the early PCA cases are still good law today, and are cited by other international tribunals, including the ICJ.[7] Mentioned earlier, the PCA was established to resolve interstate disputes, but in the 1930s the PCA was authorized to use its facilities for conciliation, and for the arbitration of international disputes between States and private parties, making it available for resolving c commercial and investment disputes. In 1962, the PCA elaborated a set of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Rules of Arbitration and Conciliation for settlement of international disputes between two parties of which only one is a State,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which undoubtedly inspired the subsequent adoption of the 1965 Agreement establishing the ICSID at the World Bank. The PCA was revived in the 1980s by the the United Nations (UNCITRAL), it a dopted a set of non-institutional arbitration rules for settling international commercial disputes. There was a setback for the United Nations though, having created all these rules to foster international trade, they had no method for appointing arbitrators and deciding challenges. The UNICITRL rules had given disputant parties the choice of setting their own rules for arbitration and also the choice to choose their own arbitrator. It also stated in cases in which the parties were unable to agree on the choice of an appointing authority, a trusted international institution was needed. Since 1981, nearly 200 requests for designation of an appointing authority have been submitted to the Secretary-General, the vast majority of them since the mid-1990s. This increase, as well as, the increasing complexity of the cases in which requests are made, has brought the PCA squarely into the realm of international commercial arbitration. Since then, the PCA has expanded and internationali zed its staff, increased worldwide awareness of its facilities and services, and improved and modernized the functioning of its system of dispute settlement primarily by adopting several sets of procedural rules, nearly all of which are based closely on the comparable UNCITRAL texts.[8] The basic organizational structure of the PCA is set out in the 1899 and 1907 Conventions. The PCA is not an actual court true in the sense it doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have permanent judges residencing in it. Instead, a permanent secretariat, known as the International Bureau and headed by the Secretary-General, assists the parties by establishing and administering for each case an ad hoc tribunal. The Bureau serves as the operative as the engine of the PCA. It holds the permanent list of arbitrators; it handles communication for the PCA. Supervisory and overseeing of the PCA is held by the Administrative Council, the administrative council consists of the diplomatic representatives of member coun tries. The Council duty is to guide the work of the PCA, and control its administration and expenses. [1] Greenberg, Simon, International Commercial Arbitration: An Asia-Pacific Perspective, Cambridge university press, 2011, p.481. [2] Greenberg, Simon, International Commercial Arbitration: An Asia-Pacific Perspective, Cambridge university press, 2011, p.481 [3] icsid.worldbank.org [4] Greenberg, Simon, International Commercial Arbitration: An Asia-Pacific Perspective, Cambridge university press, 2011, p.492. [5] Hamilton, P, The Permanent court of Arbitration: international arbitration and dispute resolution: summaries of awards, settlement agreements and reports, kluwer law international, 1999, p.3. [6] Unctad.org [7] Hamilton, P, The Permanent court of Arbitration: international arbitration and dispute resolution: summaries of awards, settlement agreements and reports, kluwer law international, 1999, p.3. [8] Unctad.org

Friday, May 8, 2020

Evaluation Of The Elementary Classroom - 1383 Words

Supervision Narrative I conducted observations at the high school, middle school, and elementary levels. At the elementary level I observed a first grade teacher on October 22nd and 23rd at Hambright Elementary school and observed language arts and math instruction. On the first day I went in the morning and observed the beginning of the day routines. At this point in the year the teacher had established the rules and procedures for student arrival. Students arrived and immediately placed item in their individual compartments, sat at their desks, and worked on assignments posted on the board until all students arrived. The teacher gave verbal reminders to the class as a whole. She gave positive corrections and verbally pointed out positive examples of students following the appropriate procedures. I observed the teacher instructing on vocabulary, sentence structure, and reading. The following day I came in the afternoon and observed a math lesson, the teacher and a guest reading a ch apter book, and the dismissal procedures. The elementary classroom functioned on a lot of structure and procedures: transition from one activity to another, submission of homework, restroom request, and arrival/dismissal. The amount of energy and enthusiasm needed by the teacher to keep the students engaged was commendable. The teacher changed the activity every ten to fifteen minutes. During reading time, she worked with a group of six students at a table while watching the remainder of theShow MoreRelatedEvaluation Of A Research On The Data Collection At An Elementary School Classroom1241 Words   |  5 Pages5. Were the data collected in a way that addressed the research issue? Four focus groups were held. The setting for the data collection was at an elementary school classroom. The researcher does not justify the use of the specific setting to the reader. It also did not states the impact the setting had on participant in terms of their emotions and participation level, it only stated that there some challenges. Observations and personal experience is an important avenue through which data can be collectedRead MoreSan Bernardino City Unified School District858 Words   |  4 Pagessevere special day classroom (SDC) setting and special education services. Effectively educating youth with moderate to severe disabilities is not a simplex task, as it requires multifaceted skillsets involving various special education professionals. Developing and executing a service delivery model that targets student’s individual needs, while simultaneously supporting students in strides towards life long goals is crucial. Carmack Elementary is one of fifty-two el ementary schools within SBCUSDRead More Literature for Use in Classroom Essay1648 Words   |  7 PagesLiterature for Use in Classroom Donna E. Nortons purpose in her book is intended to help adults discover ways to share their enchantment with books, our literary heritage, and an appreciation for literature that will last a lifetime (v). Teachers share that same goal. In selecting literature for a classroom, teachers need to take in account the following: the schools standards and benchmarks, the adopted sequential curriculum, the age of the students, their stages of language, cognitiveRead MoreChapter Iii:. Methods. Introduction. Chapter Two Discussed1701 Words   |  7 Pagesthe media framework is one way to keep the curriculum relevant and engaging. This chapter outlines three projects that show how integrating 21st century skills in the elementary media framework can create authentic and meaningful learning experiences. Project one is the creation of a scope and sequence for the use of an elementary media specialist teaching grades kindergarten through fifth. Project two is the culmination of 24 step- by- ste p lessons that integrate with the scope and sequence. LastlyRead MoreCurriculum Strengths and Weaknesses1333 Words   |  6 Pagesis strong, but the classroom instruction does not seem to be integrated with the mission/philosophy statement of the school. The curriculum should be integrated to help the â€Å"students see and make the connections between and among subjects† (ETIM, 2005). The school environment is strong. There is general concern among the staff for the welfare of the students but more should be done to strengthen the student assistance program to help students at risk right from the elementary level. Students whoRead MoreQuantitative Study Evaluation1436 Words   |  6 PagesQuantitative Study Evaluation Capella University Spring 2013: Instructor: Lisa McBride Quantitative Study Evaluation The purpose of this research is to evaluate the Effects of Classroom Structure on Student Achievement Goal Orientation. There were three classes chosen and the students had to set weekly goals based on performance and learning. Many of the students in the contingency group based their weekly goals more on learning than performance and many of the studentsRead MoreMarley Elementary : A Public Elementary School1626 Words   |  7 PagesMarley Elementary is a public elementary school located in Glen Burnie, Maryland, in the Anne Arundel County district. Marley Elementary opened its doors in 2005, and has since expanded by opening a new wing for preschool through first grade in 2014. According to AACPS.org, there were 724 students enrolled at Marley Elementary in 2014. Marley Elementary is a host of a diverse range of families, with many bilingual students, students with unique family backgrounds, students with diverse learningRead MoreThes Population Is About 58000 People1078 Words   |  5 Pages2014). Each elementary school has a different instructional and management philosophy best meeting the diverse population in our district. Individual schools choose the academic programs they wish to use to support the common core performance standards and their school improvement plans. Willard Elementary school is located in downtown Casper educating 220 students who consist of; pre-k through fifth grade, including one resource room, and two Functional Life skills classrooms. We are currentlyRead MoreWhy Is An Elementary Teacher Important? Essay979 Words   |  4 PagesWhy is an elementary teacher important? What skills do you need to become an elementary school teacher? What Does An Elementary School Teacher Do? An elementary school teacher is a person who develops lesson plan to teach students a wide range of subjects targeted at imparting knowledge in them and improving their intellectual capability in a school setting. These teachers evaluate the students comprehension and knowledge of the material. Elementary teachers use assessments of homework assignmentsRead MoreElementary Schools : The Uic Initiative Essay964 Words   |  4 PagesPREPARING PRESERVICE TEACHERS FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION IN URBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS: The UIC Initiative Becoming a teacher is growing by the day. Many people see becoming a teacher as the best job based on the schedule. With teacher’s having holidays and summers off, it is a win, win. Other people go into teaching to have the same schedules as their children or for the love of teaching and wanting the students to have full knowledge to get them through the schools years, as well as, preparing them

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Violence in Football Free Essays

Violence in football We all know that violence comes into sports. Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around. Violence is a part of sports, no matter how much the professional associations deny the fact. We will write a custom essay sample on Violence in Football or any similar topic only for you Order Now Professional football is commonly known as favorite pastime of many people. Each week millions of TV viewers watch their teams score touchdowns, kick field goals, and win games. The fans of professional sports are expecting more from the players, and when they feel that the performance from their team is inadequate, they get violent. Most people know of the incidents that occur from European and South American football games. The fans of these games have fights regularly over arguments that are provoked from one team winning and one team losing. Football players aren’t any better but are a little different when it comes to why they are paid so much. They have a lot more at stake when they go out on to the field. They have to consider the possibility of getting injured at any time because of the violent nature of the sport. They are paid to be big, mean, fast, and ruthless out on the field against men just as big and ruthless as themselves. As football has grown wider, it has also increased the violence in the game. In the last few years, professional football experienced an increase in player injuries due to game related violence. Unfortunately, there are also incidents of injuries, most of which are sustained in a normal course of the game; but there are also those which occur due to unnecessary, and at times, intentional violence. In my opinion there is too much aggression and too much focus on that aggression concerning sport. Sport should be regulated more strictly to those who break the rules. The National Football League has yet to address or attempt to remedy the situation. How to cite Violence in Football, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Thought Leadership How-To

THOUGHT LEADERSHIP HOW-TO Thought Leadership: How To Do It You’ve made a decision to take your business game to the next level. You know a thought leadership campaign will get you there. So, how do you do it? How to Develop a Thought Leadership Campaign If it’s a sales pitch, it’s not thought leadership. â€Å"True thought leadership starts with empathy,† said Brian Solis, a principal analyst at Altimeter Group and author of What’s the Future of Business (WTF). â€Å"Can you tell me the top ten problems your audience has at any given time? How about the top ten aspirations? Are you thinking through where your audience wants to be, compared with where the market is going? That’s what inspires me. Someone who is honestly trying to better understand the people they are trying to help.† To establish an effective thought leadership campaign, follow these five simple steps: Know your audience—as it relates to your business and beyond, what’s on their minds? Consult the experts—ask the most knowledgeable people on your team for their advice. Keep asking. Structure a thought leadership content strategy map—what are your goals? What expectations are realistic? What topics should you cover that matter to your audience and fall within your team’s expertise? Write it. Publish it. Continue the conversation—how did your audience react? If they didn’t react, where did the distribution fall apart? Tracking emails, downloads, retweets, likes, etc. can help you learn more about your audience’s thoughts and needs. Continue the conversation: How many people is your content reaching? What is the audience saying? What can you do to further distribute your content through reshares and backlinks? Credit: firstsiteguide.com Writing and publishing may be the shortest item in that list, but will require an ongoing commitment. Maintaining a blog can be an extremely effective way to get your whitepapers and infographics to your audience. Look at the bright side! Firstsiteguide.com shows blog posts, case studies, and long-form copy (printed or posted articles around 1,200 words) are both effective and relatively easy to produce. That makes these forms of content especially attractive, whether starting or maintaining thought leadership campaigns. How to Write a Thought Leadership Article (Whitepaper, Blog†¦) An effective thought leadership article needs to have perspective, content, and a path forward. Remember, if it’s a sales pitch, it’s not thought leadership. But if your content fails to connect your company with value to your audience, you’ve missed the mark. Perspective means having a deep, well-researched understanding of your target audience and customer base. Who are you trying to reach? What do you know about them? The content is the article itself. It should showcase your company’s understanding of its customers, show how products and services benefit those customers, and build relationships with them for the long term. A path forward is an action point for the reader to seek solutions to business problems through your company. A 2014 study showed 85 percent of B2B (business-to-business) marketing leaders did not connect their content to business value (2014 Forrester Research/Business Marketing Association/Online Marketing Institute study). The study found that while nearly 75 percent self-reported using customer stories and case studies in their content, only three percent said it was a primary focus. Just 12 percent said publishing research and expert perspectives was the main focus of their content marketing. And only five percent said frequent communication with their customer base was a priority. These marketing leaders were missing huge opportunities to utilize their case studies, a type of content both highly effective and easy to produce—or even already produced! With attention and focus, a minimal amount of effort disseminating the case studies could have reaped huge rewards in achieving thought leadership goals. Ready to write? Let’s get started. Good research, excellent writing, and unforgettable style are all components of an effective thought leadership article. Start your research by gathering available information. Does your company already have research or experts on your subject? Past brochures or interviews? Take it a step further: Could you interview sources at a business closely tied with yours, or satisfied customers who can speak to realistic results of working with your company? And please remember that while, yes, everyone loves Wikipedia, no, you may not use it as a source. When it comes to the actual writing, there are plenty of sources available to help improve your craft. If you love your subject, all you may need is a helpful editor to lend a second pair of eyes and clear up any rough spots. Not up to the task of the actual writing? You can always outsource it. But if you’re comfortable with grammar basics and able to fluently translate your industry’s jargon, great! Get writing! Now the big question: What type of content do you write? As you start brainstorming articles, papers, or posts that will matter to your audience, think about what type of content will further your business goals. Is your goal branding? Your content style is presence. Is your goal trust and transparency? Your content style is window. Are you marketing your expertise? Your content style is currency. Are you interested in joining together like-minded people? Your content style is community. Are you providing customer service? Your content style is support. These brands are nailing their content strategies. Credit: [emailprotected] Now, think about the style and tone of your piece. What publications do you admire and want to emulate? Is the writing formal or conversational? Crisp or punchy? And always include a simple infographic, video, even a photo—anything to engage with your audience at a visual level and increase shares on social media. A meaty, fact-filled whitepaper is great†¦ unless it puts your audience to sleep. Consider resurrecting dense prose into logical infographics when appropriate. Make it simple, and make it memorable. If you can deliver information more simply in a crisp diagram, you probably should. If you can get a lot of information across more simply with a simple, crisp infographic, you should. Credit: H-57 Creative Station Stand Out from the Crowd With many companies vying for position as thought leaders, keeping an eye on the competition can mean the difference between emerging victorious†¦ or irrelevant. First, identify a handful of competitors in your specialization, companies or people trying to reach your same audience. What are the most effective thought leaders doing differently from the rest of the competition? Analyze their audience’s responses. What are they doing well? What could they do better? Learn from them. Scoping out competitors can help you structure your own thinking and goals. Take what you learned from the above exercise and put it to work: The Step Strategy—Model your work off the competition, but do it a little better. The Superiority Strategy—Boldly challenge competitors by branding your business solutions far superior within the same field. The Innovative Strategy—This strategy side-steps conflict with innovative intellectual capital. Social Media: Do I Have to? You really do. And why wouldn’t you? The only cost associated with social media is the time and staff to stay engaged. That can lead to a huge return on investment (ROI). Follow these five pointers to promote your thought leadership through social media. We’ll talk more about social media in the conclusion of our thought leadership series. Until then, we’re Socially Devoted to You! Credit: Demandforce Target your audience—knowing your audience is crucial in every aspect of thought leadership and business, especially social media. Provide solutions—social media users are seeking answers to their problems. Use your thought leadership to provide what they need. Convert visitors to customers—this is that critical link between presenting information to your target audience, and providing your readers with an action point. They’ve come to you for a solution, so here’s an opportunity for you to provide what they need through your business: a discount or free product, a special offer for social media users; something to inspire them to hitch their wagon to yours. Transparency—this is key for building trust. You want your readers to see your genuine concern. Dealing with people honestly and with integrity, in social media’s ever-public setting, can showcase trustworthiness. Responsiveness—your customers, whether individuals or other businesses, need to feel heard. Knowing their concerns matter to you leads to their loyalty to your brand. This is another area where social media’s real-time involvement can make or break your long-term customer relationships. Starting a social media campaign—much less a thought leadership initiative—may seem overwhelming to the uninitiated. But the proven return on investments from social media can’t be ignored. Scary or not, social media should be an integral part of every thought leadership campaign. Up Next: Selling Thought Leadership to Your Team, featuring an exclusive interview with Brian Solis, Principal Analyst with Altimeter, a Prophet company. Also See: Why You Need a Thought Leadership Campaign Now

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Luke Presents Jesus As The Divine Saviour Religion Essays

Luke Presents Jesus As The Divine Saviour Religion Essays Luke Presents Jesus As The Divine Saviour Religion Essay Luke Presents Jesus As The Divine Saviour Religion Essay The intent of this essay is to look into the work and life of Jesus Christ while on Earth as portrayed by each of the Gospels. Though each of the Gospels presents a full image of the individual of Christ nevertheless, there is a differentiation between the four. Each of the authors nowadayss Jesus in his ain manner, in footings of audience, subject, and focal point. The Gospel of Matthew was[ 1 ]written around 50-60AD in Palestine, before the devastation of Jerusalem in 70AD ( Matt 4:5, 27:53 ) . Although the specific day of the month for the book of Mark is unsure, bookmans day of the month it to be written around 49s 60s AD, and believed to be the first Gospel written. The Gospel of Luke was written between 60 65AD while the Gospel of John was dated about 90s. Subject Matthew nowadayss[ 2 ]Jesus as Messiah. Mark presents Jesus as Servant of God, Luke presents Jesus as the Divine Saviour, and John nowadayss Jesus as the Son of God. Audience Matthew writes his Gospel to the Jews. He sought to convert the Jews that Jesus is the promised christ and male monarch, which was fulfilled through repeated prognostication in the Old Testament. Mark writes to the Roman audience, who were non[ 3 ]spiritual, neither philosopher like the Greek. Luke writes to a Grecian audience, who were really spiritual, philosophical, and great minds. His two actual classical books, book of Acts and Luke were written to Theophilus a high ranking Greek baronial adult male and other Gentile Christians ( LK 1:3, Acts 1:1 ) . The Gospel of John was written to all Christians. Background to the Gospel The book of Matthew was placed foremost as an debut to the New Testament because it bridge spread between the Old and New Testament. Written in Greek for Judaic trusters but the manner of authorship was Hebrew or Aramaic due to the manner Jesus life and ministry was narrated. Although the writer of the Gospel was non identified by name in scriptural text, but testimony by early[ 4 ]church male parents, Eusebius and Papias shows that Apostle Matthew wrote the book as an oculus informant to major events during the ministry of Jesus Christ on Earth. The Gospel of Mark was action parked fast traveling narrative written by John Mark an associate of Peter, comrade of Paul and Barnabas.[ 5 ]Harmonizing to Papias, Mark derived his content from his association with Peter, he was Peter translator and wrote as many things he can retrieve as Peter relate to him. He tailored his Gospel for his Romans hearers who are non spiritual, who have regard for authorization but love action. He portrayed Jesus as a miracle worker ; one who could command air current and storm, whom devils trembled at his sight and mend all mode of illnesss and diseases, but despite this power he humbled himself and gave his life as a ransom, learning that people who are genuinely great are servant, that anyone that wants to be great must be a servant first. The writer of the Gospel of[ 6 ]Luke was a doctor, sharp author, theologian and historian whose book was directed to the Grecian truster. The book of Luke is the first of its two books addressed to a adult male called Theophilus a gentile truster ( LK 1:3, Act 1:1 ) . He was a Gentile convert, the lone non Judaic writer of a bible book. Besides his medical cognition which he shows often when he used medical footings to depict illnesss for illustration a adult male enduring from edema ( LK 14:2 ) . The writer of the 4th Gospel was[ 7 ]John the boy of Zebedee one of the original 12 adherents of Jesus, he writes as the adherents whom Jesus loved ( Jn. 13: 23-24, 20: 2-9, 21:2-24 ) , therefore claims to be an oculus informant of Jesus ministry, and recorded much of Jesus ministry in Judea and Jerusalem. Purpose of the Canonical Gospels Matthew wrote to convert Judaic Christians that Jesus roots is from the line of descent of Abraham and posterities of David ( Matt 1:1-17 ) . Besides excessively assured the Jews that Jesus was the boy of God, awaited christ has foretold by the Old Testament prophesier ( Ish. 7:14 ) .[ 8 ]Matthew besides shows to the Jews that Christ came to set up a religious land non a political one, which will be followed by a physical land at the terminal of the age. The book of Matthew is non complete without his account on great committee ( Matt 28:19 ) . Marks writes to oppress[ 9 ]Romans Christian showing Jesus as the Son of God ( Mk 1:1 ) , a agony retainer of God, besides excessively bucked up Romans trusters to endure dependably for the Gospel as he placed before them the life, enduring, decease, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ their Lord and Jesus. Luke wrote to the[ 10 ]Grecian Christian and the most comprehensive of the synoptic Gospel, he provide full inside informations of all that Jesus the human Jesus had done, learn until the twenty-four hours he was taken up to heaven ( LK 1:3-4 ) . He traced Jesus human family tree back to Adam ( LK 3:23-38 ) , non merely to Abraham as did Matthew ( Matt 1:1-17 ) . In Luke we see Jesus as godly Jesus ( Lk. 1:47, 2:11 ) who provides redemption for all work forces irrespective of their nationality. Johns intent was to uncover the[ 11 ]divinity of Jesus Christ that he is so the Son of God who in obeisance to the male parent took on the nature of adult male ( Jn. 1:1 ) , and those who believed in him receive ageless life ( John 20:31 ) . He wrote to rebut false instructions of the[ 12 ]Gnostics who goes about denying the humanity: ( the word became flesh, Jn. 1:14 ) and decease of Jesus Christ: ( Jesus decease and Resurrection, Jn. 19, 20:1-28 ) . Focus of the Gospels Levi[ 13 ]focal point on Jesus, the King of Israel who fulfilled Old Testament Torahs and messianic prognostication ( Ish. 7:13 ) , from construct ( Matt 1:22-23 ) , to his abode in Nazareth ( Matt 2:23 ) , his Galilean ministry ( Matt 4:14-chs 18 ) , instructions about the terminal clip ( eschatology ) , exultant entry into Jerusalem. He arranged Jesus instructions about the land into ; ethics-sermon on the saddle horse ( Matt 5:1-7:29 ) ; missional ( Matt 9:35-11:1 ) ; fables about the land ( Matt 13:1-52 ) ; discipleship ( Matt 18:1-35 ) and in conclusion on Olivet discourse about the terminal of the age ( Matt 23:1-25:46 ) . He portrayed Jesus as the promised King, who came to kick off land of Eden which is non political but religious. In a fast[ 14 ]tricky action, Mark focuses chiefly on Jesus mighty miracles, his authorization over illnesss and devils as marks that the land of Gods is at manus. He besides portrayed Jesus as Gods retainer. It was at Caesarea Philippi, Jesus individuality was to the full disclosed to his adherents as the Christ, and his anticipation about his decease and Resurrection ( Mk 8:31 ) which shows his Godhead precognition ; doing mentions to cost of discipleship ( Mk 8:34-38, 9:1-10 ) and in conclusion on Passion Week in ( Mk 11-16 ) . Luke is the most comprehensive of the synoptic Gospel, concentrating on Jesus line of descent from pre birth to Ascension, his[ 15 ]Galilean ministry in LK 4:14-9:50, concluding journey to Jerusalem in LK 9:51-19:27 and his last hebdomad called passion hebdomad in LK 19:28-24:53. The chief focal point of Luke is on Jesus instructions and fables during his ministry, showing cosmopolitan hope that Jesus came for both Jews and heathens, his accent on supplication, on the move and work of the Holy Spirit, get downing from the filling of John the Baptist from his female parent uterus ; to the miraculously birth of the boy of God ( LK 1:35 ) , to Jesus spirit baptism in ( LK 4:14 ) ; and vesture of adherents with power from on high ( LK 24:49 ) . John focuses much more on the discourses of Christ as Gods incarnate Son. The[ 16 ]book of John have two divisions the first division ( Jn. 1-12 ) , he explain with groundss Jesus embodiment with: seven marks ( miracles ) , seven instructions ( Jesus used to unwrap his individuality ) , and seven aa‚Â ¬AI amaa‚Â ¬A? statements ( by which Jesus revealed figuratively what he is to human race ) with his bodily Resurrection as cogent evidence of his claim as Christ, the Son of God. The 2nd division John focuses on Jesus relationship with his adherents ( Jn. 13-21 ) , the ministry of the Holy Spirit ( Jn. 14-16 ) , the last supper ( Jn. 13 ) , Jesus concluding supplication for trusters ( Jn. 17 ) , eventually his decease and Resurrection ( Jn. 20-21 ) . Relation of the Gospels The four Gospel authors write to people of different background and demands. Each under the influence and the inspiration of the Holy Spirit write about the life and instruction of Jesus Christ harmonizing to audiences whom they were composing to. Other instruction was omitted intentionally, for illustration Mark references adult females non disassociating their hubbies to his Romans audience ( Mk 10 ; 12 ) , Matthew did non advert this since Judaic jurisprudence did non allow a adult female to disassociate her hubby. Matthew and Luke[ 17 ]write from Mark while John copied from no 1. Altogether Matthew, Mark and Luke record 83 events of the same history merely twenty four of this are[ 18 ]found in all the four Gospels, with forty- one accounts alone to Johns Gospel, 52 to Luke, Matthew with 20 aa‚Â ¬ seven alone histories, while Mark has two. John has no record of Jesus fables. Matthew recorded 18 fables of Jesus, Luke 19 while Mark has four. Decision Each of the Gospels authors presents the same Gospel under the leading of the Holy Spirit excessively meet specific need in the organic structure of Christ. I believe the focal point of each of the author matured the church of Christ over clip, maintain the church focal point in the right position.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Definition and Examples of Pro-Verbs in English

Definition and Examples of Pro-Verbs in English In English grammar, a proverb is a type of substitution in which a verb or verb phrase (such as do or do so) takes the place of another verb, usually to avoid repetition. Modeled on the term pronoun, pro-verb was coined by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen (The Philosophy of Grammar, 1924), who also considered the functions of pro-adjectives, pro-adverbs, and pro-infinitives. The grammatical term pro-verb shouldnt be confused with the literary and rhetorical term proverb, a concise statement of a general truth. Examples and Observations In its . . . auxiliary use, the relation of do to verbs is similar to that of pronouns to nouns: You could call do in this function a proverb. (34a) We want that trophy more than they do.(34b) Ill taste your raw-beet casserole if Fred does. In the first example, do stands for want that trophy, and in the second, does substitutes for tastes your raw-beet casserole. - (Thomas P. Klammer, Muriel R. Schulz, and Angela Della Volpe, Analyzing English Grammar, 5th ed. Pearson Education, 2007) Animals suffer as much as we do. -(Albert Schweitzer) A child needs respect as do we adults. -(Zeus Yiamouyiannis, Subverting the Capitalist Model for Education. Educating Tomorrows Valuable Citizen, ed. by Joan N. Burstyn. SUNY Press, 1996) Yes, sure, I like it. I really do. -(Robert Stone, Damascus Gate. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1998) Havent you heard? She thinks Im talented, I said dryly. I thought you did, too. - (V.C Andrews, Dawn. Pocket Books, 1990) Why, I must confess that I love him better than I do Bingley. -(Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, 1813) I love him better than I do you and all I hope is that you will find someone that will suit you as well as he does me. -(Ruth Karr McKee, Mary Richardson Walker: Her Book, 1945) No one knows better than I do, or can appreciate more keenly than I can, the value of the services you have rendered me and the satisfactory results of your friendly interest in me. -(John Roy Lynch, Reminiscences of an Active Life: The Autobiography of John Roy Lynch, ed. by John Hope Franklin. University of Chicago Press, 1970) [I]ts extremely difficult to narrate something like, say, a murder or rape in first-person present tense (though quite a few of my students have tried). Doing so often leads to unintentionally comic sentences. -(David Jauss, On Writing Fiction: Rethinking Conventional Wisdom About the Craft . Writers Digest Books, 2011) Pro-verb Do as a Responsive The use of the proverb do as a responsive is so productive that it occurs even when do does not appear in the preceding allocution as in (19): (19) A: Well, you remember, say, the troubles round here you know {}(19) B: Yeah, I do.(Ulster 28) In example (19) the pro-verb do rather than the lexical verb remember is employed. Based on this evidence, it is therefore inaccurate to say that what is being echoed or repeated in the responsive is the verb of the preceding allocation. Clearly, it is the pure nexus or the pro-verb do (the nexus marker) rather than the predicate remember that is being repeated. -(Gili Diamant, The Responsive System of Irish English. New Perspectives on Irish English, ed. by Bettina Migge and Mire NÃ ­ Chiosin. John Benjamins, 2012) Pro-verbs vs. Pronouns I asked him to leave and he did. Did is a proverb, used as a substitute for a verb just as a pronoun is a substitute for a noun. This is intuitively very comfortable, until we take a careful look. Even though the pronoun is conceptually unmotivated it is at least morphologically motivated as a separate part of speech. But the proverb is in no way a distinct part of speech; it is just as much a verb as the verb it replaces. Now, of course, no one has said that the proverb is a distinct part of speech, yet certainly the intuitive satisfaction we get from it is directly dependent on the parallel with the pronoun, and if it werent for the pronoun the new term would never have found currency. So instead of having a coherent theory in traditional grammar, one whose parts are integrated according to well-motivated, carefully controlled principles, we have something that is built up by free association. -(William Diver, Joseph Davis, and Wallis Reid, Traditional Grammar and Its Legacy in Twentieth-Century Linguistics. Langu age: Communication and Human Behavior: The Linguistic Essays of William Diver, ed. by Alan Huffman and Joseph Davis. Brill, 2012) Style Note on Generic Do Sometimes, when writers are unable to think of the precise verb to complete a sentence, they simply plug in do; for example, They did the rumba rather than They danced the rumba. When it does not refer back to a previously used verb, do is not a pro-form. It is a generic verb, from the top of the ladder of generalization, and people often resort to using it simply because they are unable to come up with a more accurate verb, and do will suffice in most cases. Take, for example, the now popular saying, Lets do lunch. But because of its lack of specificity, do often results in lifeless sentences, and therefore writers should avoid using it (except as a pro-form of auxiliary). Used as a generic verb, do does not create textual cohesion. -(Colleen Elaine Donnelly, Linguistics for Writers. SUNY Press, 1994) Do and Happen The only members of the class of pro-verb are do and happen. These stand for any unidentified or unspecified process, do for actions and happen for events (or for actions encoded receptively, in some kind of passive form). Their occurrence does not necessarily involve an anaphoric or cataphoric reference. -(M.A.K. Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan, Cohesion in English. Longman, 1976)

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 5

Research Paper Example The reason behind this great success is the diversified and extensive platform social media provide to their users. Success does not only refer to good sales or handsome income, but another important factors that incur little or no expense over marketing or other legal formalities. It needs to be noted here that social media are not just limited to social networking sites but are very extensive involving the use of various modern techniques. The most popular and the most intriguing social media forum is Facebook which is a marketing platform and start up point of various small scale businesses. Thus in a nutshell, social media have added greatly to the progress and propagation of small scale businesses. Firstly, social media help a small scale businessman to develop a complete marketing strategy. This is one of the most important steps to propagate the business. The convenient platform of social media provided allows individuals to develop a healthy and cheap marketing strategy. This helps businessmen to outline their ideal customer or, basically, their target market and audience. It determines how and what makes them distinct from others in the same field offering the same services, as well as why one should choose them. This gives the customer a story to relate or a glimpse of the services and facilities that await them. Thus, "Social Media for Marketing is perhaps one of the areas of business where social media may prove to be very useful. It can help your reach more markets, and serve as a guide so that you can target your marketing strategies accordingly." (Juon, Dunrie and Buerkle, 56) Secondly, social media aid in developing public relations, as they are quite important to develop a small scale business and make it prosper. Building up on public relations and customer support by using social media is very common these days. This does not only involves queries, orders or details etc. but also helps individuals to evaluate the response and popularity of th e object. The conversations or blogging done on these platforms allow people to understand the product better; if there are any critiques or negative feedback, that can also restrict the customer from doing business. These trends have also evolved the concept of customer services in recent times. Hence, if a social media is used to make good public relations with healthy sales and positive feedback, then that can propagate the business more. "A strong public relations foundation, using feedback from publics, and enhancing the sense of community can make a good digital media plan a great one." (Stoldt, Dittmore and Branvold, 88) It has been observed that through social media, one can engage the customers. "Such a raft of activity surrounding social media it is no wonder that business is beginning to recognize the need to engage social media and overcome any associated fears in adopting this technology to communicate with potential clients." (Davies, 175) Through various promotional s trategies that are being used these days like competitions and sharing of the page etc. has caused great success to businesses. Today, page owners or, in other words, entrepreneurs offer certain incentives which encourage users or customers to promote the business. These incentives might